Tuesday, August 11, 2015

Motivation, Creativity & Fulfillment

By: Molly Holinger
 
Motivation, creativity, and fulfillment are inextricably interwoven phenomena, especially in our "age of abundance" (Pink, A Whole New Mind) where humans have both increasing freedom and demands to be creative. Much of what we know about the relationship between intrinsic motivation and creativity we owe to brilliant creativity researcher Teresa Amabile. Currently a professor of Business Administration and Director of Research at Harvard, Amabile essentially established (or at the very least invigorated) a social psychology of creativity, beginning with The Social Psychology of Creativity (1983), in which she researches the role of motivation in creativity. 

In The Social Psychology of Creativity, Amabile introduces her “intrinsic motivation principle of creativity”:
“Intrinsic motivation is conducive to creativity; controlling extrinsic motivation is detrimental to creativity, but informational enabling extrinsic motivation can be conducive, particularly if initial levels of intrinsic motivation are high."
To put her theory more simply, intrinsic motivation increases creativity and extrinsic motivation decreases creativity. 

It's hard to over-emphasize the importance of this finding: how we motivate ourselves and how others choose to motivate us (our bosses, our family members, etc.) determine how creative our responses will be. Amabile published this theory for the first time in 1983 and later updated her findings in the 1996 The Social Psychology of Creativity, later renamed Creativity in Context. This begs the question, if this theory has been around for more than thirty years, why haven't these ideas translated into our workforce? Daniel Pink, clearly aware of this gap between existing research and current practices, responded with his book Driverevisiting and rechampioning these themes introduced by Amabile decades ago. Pink theorizes that autonomy, purpose, and mastery lead to high intrinsic motivation and, in turn, highly creative and productive employees. 

Both Amabile and Pink specify contexts in which their overarching theories apply and contexts in which they do not. Foremost, these theories only hold true for heuristic (open-ended or creative) tasks. They assert, if not in the same words, that “Rewards do not undermine people’s intrinsic motivation for dull tasks because there is little or no intrinsic motivation to be undermined.” 

Another caveat for motivation is what Amabile calls, "informational enabling extrinsic motivation." According to Amabile, there are certain exceptions when it comes to extrinsic motivators, which is why she differentiates “controlling extrinsic motivation” and “enabling extrinsic motivation.” Here, Amabile identifies the situations that fall under the “enabling extrinsic motivation” category:
"There are a set of conditions under which reward might be expected to have positive (or at least neutral) effects on creativity… (a) the reward is not salient relative to self-perceived intrinsic motivation because the reward is very small, or cognitive distancing techniques are used, or the salience of intrinsic motivation has been increased; or (b) the degree to which the reward is perceived as more enabling than controlling (where enabling refers to the degree to which the reward of contract enables the individual to do something interesting or personally challenging) ; or (c) the reward is perceived as more informational about competence than controlling; or (d) the reward leads to positive affect in the absence of controlling implications (such as a “bonus” reward situation); or (e) the “reward is perceived as equitable compensation for one’s work in general (such as a person being paid a salary for one’s job) rather than as a reward for a particular task.”
Towards the end of her book, Amabile leaves the reader with an all-encompassing lesson. 
"Perhaps the most important point to be made about the intrinsic motivation principle is that it proposes the functional equivalence of many social factors which seem quite disparate. Expecting to be evaluated on task performance functions in the same way as having a choice of task engagement constrained, being watched while performing the task, receiving positive evaluations on previous work, contracting to receive an attractive reward for task performance, and being led to think about the intrinsic value of doing the task. Clearly, despite the superficial differences between these factors, their psychological impact appears to be the same." 
In other words, there is no single perfect combination of factors leading to maximized intrinsic engagement. Rather, these factors can be adjusted and recombined depending on which of the resources one has at their disposal. Lacking an empathetic boss?... Perhaps strive for greater autonomy. Intrinsic engagement is something we can control if we practice the art of combining the factors that produce it. 

Perhaps the strongest impression one receives from The Social Psychology of Creativity is the delicacy and complexity of motivation; the discussion is not intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation (where one type emerges as definitively superior) but rather which is appropriate and effective for the situation at hand.

While Amabile stands clearly in the realm of research, Pink becomes a bit more philosophical, adding fulfillment to the mix of the discussion on motivation.
“Human beings have an innate inner drive to be autonomous, self-determined, and connected to one another. And when that drive is liberated, people achieve more and live richer lives.” 
While extrinsic motivation may have its purposes, intrinsic motivation and all that comes with it—challenge, purpose, creativity—clearly leads to a more fulfilling life. Pink leaves us with the following,
“While complying can be an effective strategy for physical survival, it's a lousy one for personal fulfillment. Living a satisfying life requires more than simply meeting the demands of those in control. Yet in our offices and our classrooms we have way too much compliance and way too little engagement. The former might get you through the day, but only the latter will get you through the night.” 


References:
Amabile, T. (1996). Creativity in context: Update to the social psychology of creativity. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Inc.

Pink, D. (2009). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Penguin Group. 



Bio:  Molly Holinger is a graduate student and Graduate Assistant at the International Center for Studies in Creativity at SUNY Buffalo State. Before coming to Buffalo, she co-taught Creativity, Innovation and Vision at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. With her colleagues at the University of Illinois, she co-authored the textbook Building Your Creative Toolbox.
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Thursday, July 30, 2015

Minimalism, Materialism & Creativity

“Money does not buy happiness,” we implicitly agree and explicitly enact to varying degrees. Psychological research has found this claim to be both true and false; a more accurate phrase would be, “Money doesn’t buy happiness... after a certain point.” According to research by Daniel Kahneman, behavioral economist (a term coined by Kahneman himself) and author of the fascinating Thinking Fast and Slow, happiness does increase as income increases but only up to an annual income of $75,000. In other words, below $75,000, income and happiness mutually increase and beyond $75,000 the correlation ceases to exist. 

In a sense, Kahneman’s threshold is a re-expression of Maslow’s seminal hierarchy of needs. Both Kahneman’s research and Maslow’s hierarchy function upon the correlation that as certain strains decrease, other, higher values flourish. In Kahneman’s research, as stress, worry, and feelings of sadness decrease (and income rises), positive affect increases. In Maslow’s theory, similarly, as our biological needs and our need for safety are met, we can then turn to pursuits such as self-actualization and creativity.

As mentioned, creativity sits atop Maslow’s pyramid, and comes into play only after basic needs have been met which, in certain respects, makes total sense. Take our environment, for instance, often the product of financial status. Many of us inherently sense that our environment deeply impacts how we feel and act, and there is plenty of research to support this: Natural settings decrease stress and refresh the mind; color, light and space affect productivity and emotion; clutter can both stimulate inspiration or reduce focus according to different studies. Environment has a huge effect on how and what we create, as well as affecting our emotions overall.

Creative individuals and companies understand the importance of a creative workspace, or a creative “oasis” as John Cleese calls it in his funny yet insightful and informative talk on creativity. Having the resources to cater to one’s creative preferences, whether that means practically or aesthetically, or both, can enhance creative work. Often cultivating ritualistic tendencies within their life structure, the creative person applies the same seriousness to refining an environment that nourishes these rituals. For instance, children’s author Maurice Sendak
“has a... working studio that contains a huge unit with flat pullout drawers in which he keeps sketches, reference materials, notes articles. He works on several projects at a time, and he likes to keep the overlapping materials out of sight when he’s tackling any one of them.”
It might be said, then, that money does buy creativity (or at least enhances it) when one has greater access and freedom in choosing and customizing a work environment.
Having the freedom and the means to secure a pleasing environment may, however, evade our reach regardless of salary. Perhaps we have no choice but to work out of a cubicle daily, or whether we work from home or in the office. On the other hand, those lucky enough to choose where they work can access a pleasing environment regardless of income with the growth of co-op spaces and the existence of wonderful public spaces.

Apart from low-cost creative spaces, financial security and creativity diverge in the case for simplicity and its ability to bolster rather than block one’s creativity. As Tharp states in her lovely book, The Creative Habit,
“Whom the gods wish to destroy, they give unlimited resources."
In other words, limits often help us be creative by providing a framework to innovate within. Without the means to accomplish something in a traditional manner, scarcity often necessitates creativity. Furthermore, a minimalist workspace has been shown to increase focus in certain studies.
“When your environment is cluttered, the chaos restricts your ability to focus. The clutter also limits your brain’s ability to process information. Clutter makes you distracted and unable to process information as well as you do in an uncluttered, organized, and serene environment.” 
Subscribing to the notion that “money does not buy happiness,” may be virtuous, but also a bit foolish. As demonstrated by Kahneman, money does buy happiness-- at least to an extent. Furthermore, minimalism and materialism are not necessarily exclusive values: after all, the minimalist must first be able to afford a space to assert their minimalist tendencies within.





John Cleese on Creativity


Bio:  Molly Holinger is a graduate student and Graduate Assistant at the International Center for Studies in Creativity at SUNY Buffalo State. Before coming to Buffalo, she co-taught Creativity, Innovation and Vision at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. With her colleagues at the University of Illinois, she co-authored the textbook Building Your Creative Toolbox.

Wednesday, July 1, 2015

Mind Full of Creativity

By: Jennifer Quarrie

True happiness, we are told, consists in getting out of ones self; but the point is not only to get out - you must stay out; and to stay out you must have some absorbing errand.
- Henry James


Being creative can seem like a tremendous task.  Solving the biggest problems in our lives is no small thing.  Generating large volumes of ideas, we can get carried away.  Facing the task of implementing our grand solutions can seem overwhelming.  But is it really creativity that is so massive, or is it the accumulation of all the other things on our minds?

When our minds are full, we are not free to give our creative goals the attention they need.  Creativity needs special types of attention, many of which relate to the practice of being mindful being aware of what we are doing with an attitude of open curiosity and compassionate acceptance.  So how do we transition from being mind full to mindful?  Here are a couple of tips that may bring those preoccupations down to size.

Slow It Down
Nothing brings attention to the present moment like significantly slowing down what we are doing.  Not only does it increase focus and awareness, but it also calms the stress hormones responsible for keeping that endless, urgent to-do list from constantly disrupting productive thought.

Notice the Obvious
We are built to ignore the familiar; it saves incredible mental resources.  Yet as the familiar begins to change, we may fail to notice.  Using mindfulness to perceive what is in front of us helps make the world new while maintaining presence and focus.

Rock the Routine
Stepping out of our own rhythms can bring remarkable perspective.  It also requires significant attention to navigate new terrain.  Inviting circumstances that demand focus can build mental levels of attention.

Embrace Ambiguity
Ambiguous situations can feel disorienting.  When faced with ambiguity we have a tendency to focus on the small details we can control and ignore the big picture.  Mindfulness helps us accept that ambiguity for what it is and use focused attention to face it.  Once the ambiguous feels more comfortable, it becomes easier to keep the big picture in mind and devise true strategy for change.

Balance Acceptance & Hope
Hope is one of the most potent forms of motivation.  Much of creativity relies on hope.  We project potential futures and set out to materialize them.  Yet to do so we must be clear about the present.  Mindfulness helps us recognize the current state of things.  Yet just because we accept the present does not mean we cannot have hope for the future.  Juxtaposing our current and ideal states empowers us to identify and pursue the paths to reach it.

Use Intuition
The better we know ourselves, the better decisions we can make.  Using mindfulness to connect with ourselves increases self-awareness and self-knowledge in a non-judgmental way.  Using intuition to connect with the heart empowers the head.

Make a Choice
We choose how we react to everything in life.  By setting an intention and focusing on it, we are better able to act in accordance with our intentions.  Mindfulness helps to transform our behaviors from unthinking reactions to deliberate responses.

When our minds are overflowing with preoccupations, we can use deliberate actions to change gears.  Opening space to experience the present brings perspective, and those big tasks dont seem so daunting anymore.  By being more mindful we can open space to have a mind full of creativity.



References
 Honoré, C. (2004). In praise of slowness: Challenging the cult of speed. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
 Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York, NY: Hyperion.
 Puccio, G. J., Mance, M., & Murdock, M. C. (2011). Creative leadership: Skills that drive change (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
 Van Bilsen, H. (2009). Zee Beatty and the Socks of Doom. Herford: IAPT Consulting.  Retrieved from http://socksofdoom.com/about.php.
 Cartoon source: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-03PBL2-toRg/Te9wmubdbYI/AAAAAAAABXc/YG5Iv4JQuzg/s1600/mindfulness-poster.jpg

Bio: Jennifer Quarrie is a dynamic innovation strategist and creativity expert with a visionary outlook and a knack for metacognition, facilitation and listening. With a BA in Cognitive Science from the University of Virginia and an MSc in Creative Studies from the International Center for Studies in Creativity (ICSC) at SUNY Buffalo State, she incorporates budding areas of mind and creativity research into all of her work. As a leader and speaker she inspires wellness, fosters transformation and emboldens self-actualization.
 

MISSION UNSOLVABLE: THE POWER OF POLARITY THINKING


 By: Jennifer Quarrie

Are you a powerhouse at Creative Problem Solving?  Always at the ready to save the day?  Its an amazing feeling to implement a solution after a lot of hard work.  But what about those other challenges lurking in the shadows?  You know the ones 

:::Your mission, should you choose to accept it, is to face the Unsolvables:::

Its tough to admit, but some problems dont have solutions.  Luckily there are tools that can help manage challenges and improve circumstances. 

Polarity Thinking
Polarity thinking is just such a tool. It works to balance pairs of needs that depend on each other to achieve a positive result (inhaling and exhaling, for example).  When faced with a situation where you need two polarities in your life, yet are seeking to avoid both of their downsides, polarity thinking can help diminish the amount of time you spend in each negative pole.  The trick is recognizing that youve moved into the negative and directing energy towards moving out of it quickly to the opposite, positive pole.

Combine & Synthesize
In complex problem solving, using only one approach or tool often wont cut it.  E. Paul Torrance said it best as part of his Torrance Incubation Model: combine and synthesize.  Leveraging multiple approaches to include Creative Problem Solving and Polarity Thinking when addressing complex challenges results in a more holistic approach to confronting problems.  The fact that such a combination is feasible is a testament to the flexibility of these tools.  It also highlights that, when combined, the tools are more than the sum of their parts.

:::You may choose any two team members but for Unsolvable challenges, one must be polarity thinking:::

Reframing Success
It is easy to assume that solving a problem equates to simply identifying a solution, implementing it and checking it off the list. 

:::These assumptions will self-destruct in five seconds:::

In reality, solutions are impermanent because circumstances are always changing.  While solving a problem may work in the short term, learning how to manage ongoing polarities is a skill that enables a lifetime of progress.  Moving between poles while learning and iterating builds a useful portfolio of experience and knowledge (which can come in handy during problem solving).  At the end of the day, the ultimate goal of problem solving often centers on improving quality of life, which polarity thinking facilitates in a continuous cycle.  Glad you have a new partner in crime, Polarity Thinking, with whom to face the Unsolvables?

:::Mission accomplished:::


References
 Cruise, T. & Wagner, P. (Producers), & De Palma, B. (Director). (May 22, 1996). Mission: Impossible. [Motion picture]. United States of America: Paramount Pictures.
 Johnson, B. (1992). Polarity management: Identifying and managing unsolvable problems. Amherst, MA: HRD Press.
 Johnson, B. (2014). Reflections a perspective on paradox and its application to modern management. Polarity Partnerships. Retrieved from http://www.polaritypartnerships.com/downloads-free/59-Reflections-%20A%20Perspective%20on%20Paradox%20and%20Its%20Application%20to%20Modern%20Management.pdf
 Puccio, G., Mance, M., Switalski, L.B., & Reali, P. D. (2012). Creativity rising: Creative thinking and creative problem solving in the 21st century. Buffalo, NY: ICSC Press.
 Torrance, E. P. (1979). An instructional model for enhancing incubation. Journal of Creative Behavior, 13(1), pp. 23-35.
 Torrance & Safter, H. T. (1990). The incubation model of learning and teaching: Getting beyond aha. Buffalo, NY: Bearly Limited.

Bio: Jennifer Quarrie is a dynamic innovation strategist and creativity expert with a visionary outlook and a knack for metacognition, facilitation and listening. With a BA in Cognitive Science from the University of Virginia and an MSc in Creative Studies from the International Center for Studies in Creativity (ICSC) at SUNY Buffalo State, she incorporates budding areas of mind and creativity research into all of her work. As a leader and speaker she inspires wellness, fosters transformation and emboldens self-actualization.


Thursday, June 25, 2015

Trusting Yourself: The Gateway to Creativity & Wellness


 By: Jennifer Quarrie

It is not because things are difficult that we do not dare; it is because we do not dare that they are difficult.  - Lucius Annaeus Seneca

What secret goals do you harbor?  What wishes thump in your heart but remain quietly caged, set aside for another day?  We all realize we have aspirations, but do we know why we arent pursuing them?  What is stopping you?

Many of us are everyday creators, fluidly solving daily challenges in unique ways.  However, as we consider larger-scale change, inertia can become much stronger.  At times this can stall us from approaching change on our most important issues.  During an effort to explore how creativity might foster personal wellness, this phenomenon came into stark relief. 

Social Norms
While interviewing colleagues and reflecting personally on the hurdles to achieving the large-scale challenge of personal wellness, a strong theme emerged: while many were confident in their own creativity and problem solving abilities, implementing their ideal solutions often included an uncomfortable degree of bucking social norms.  Two sets of needs were set in opposition; by pursuing personal wellness needs they risked compromising sources of social acceptance and support.  The same holds true in creativity.  Creators need support to be their most creative, and yet staying true to ones ideas, craft, creative methods and personal needs sometimes opposes social norms and thus reduces that social support.

Self-Trust, Permission & Compassion
So what is required to push people past the tipping point of serving social expectations in favor of personal care and development?  First and foremost, we require self-trust to feel intuitively confident in the direction we have chosen.  Next, we require awareness of both our perceived limitations and the true results of breaking through them.  Then we must grant ourselves personal permission to exceed constraints such as personal habits, social judgment and perceived limitations.  While many seek approval from others as well, the act of acknowledging most limitation as personal threshold is important.  Finally, we require compassion to navigate any bumps in the road along the way, and honesty to see things as they are on the other side of the looking glass.





Hurdles to Self-Trust

Hint: the cage is not locked. - Nova Knutson

     Confidence - No one has a crystal ball, but most of us prefer to feel confident about our own decisions before investing significant resources or changing the direction of our lives.  As hard as it can be to estimate how your decisions may turn out, even more difficult is developing the confidence to recognize what you truly want in the first place.  A nuanced process like Creative Problem Solving (CPS) helps to expose the genuine needs at the heart of complex problems.  In addition, the thorough nature of CPS organically builds confidence as we step through the process by ensuring we have considered the issue from many vantage points.
     Perfectionism - Dont allow the perfect to become the enemy of the good.  Letting go of a specific solution can open you to even better possibilities and create new opportunities.  Partial progress is much better than none at all and places you in a new position to reassess the situation for new paths forward.  Assessing the priorities involved in a challenge can make it far clearer where to begin.
     Fear of Risk - Without risk, there is very little progress.  Understanding risk and learning when and how to take it requires practice.  Start small, then begin to accept a greater possibility of failure, and discover what you can learn from the experiences. 
     Fear of Failure - Complex problems often have complex answers with changing variables.  No solution is permanent; plans are meant to change.  Recognizing that you are committing to finding the right path forward gives you the freedom to pivot as circumstances change rather than remaining wedded to a solution.
     Lack of Experience - Trusting yourself does not mean going it alone.  Sharing your goals and plans may invite positive feedback on your work, and insight toward ways in which you can build your vision.

Building Support
Change is difficult.  Making significant changes in an environment when everyone else keeps the old habits makes it even harder.  Finding support is one of the best ways to facilitate change and solidify a new path forward.  Sharing risk with others makes you more likely to make leaps you might not otherwise take alone and, in the process, build self-trust through experience.

     Build Your Tribe - Use the hyper-connectivity of the modern world to your advantage.  Find those who understand and share your passions, and work together.  Feeling understood and having support are keys to success in every endeavor. 
     Micro Cultures - Social norms grow from visionary changes that often originate from small groups (such as a few computer whizzes in a garage).  By building a clear vision of the future based on the diverse input of your tribe, the momentum and results form a culture of their own.  Participating in a micro culture can be invigorating as you experience traction for your greater vision and goals.
     Ask - Others will not know you need support unless you ask.  You may be surprised at the results.  Asking others for input or assistance solidifies your commitment to solving the problem and invites an array of input to evolve your ideas further to be their most effective or unique.  The vulnerability and honesty you share may inspire the same in return.  The bond you build through partnership may last well beyond the task at hand.  Finally, involving others also provides you support during a process of exploration and change, which may help you feel comfortable enough to pursue ideas further, and give you the confidence to implement your outcome.  And if they say no?  You may gather valuable insight through that conversation as well.

Creative Risk
Building trust in yourself empowers you to navigate unknown situations, respond to unexpected changes and pursue your deepest aspirations.  Without the awareness of your own needs and the confidence and trust to strive for them, your ability to achieve wellness and self-actualization will be inhibited.  Giving yourself permission to take risks and deconstruct limitations opens the door of opportunity.  Using CPS and creative thinking skills are excellent methods of realizing what is stopping you from pursuing your goals, identifying necessary risks to reach them, and determining the ways to take those risks while minimizing negative impact.  Trusting the creative process is a path to trusting yourself, which is in turn a key step on the road to personal wellness and fully realizing your potential.

References
Gates, R., & Kenison, K. (2010). Meditations from the mat: Daily reflections on the path of yoga. New York, NY: Anchor.
Kelley, T., & Kelley, D. (2013). Creative confidence: Unleashing the creative potential within us all. New York, NY: Crown Business.
Puccio, G. J., Mance, M., & Murdock, M. C. (2011). Creative leadership: Skills that drive change (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Puccio, G., Mance, M., Switalski, L.B., & Reali, P. D. (2012). Creativity rising: Creative thinking and creative problem solving in the 21st century. Buffalo, NY: ICSC Press.
Robin, M. (2010). Wellness on a shoestring: Seven habits for a healthy life. Unity Village, MO: Unity House.

Image source: http://ruggedtec.com/tag/rock-climbing/

Bio: Jennifer Quarrie is a dynamic innovation strategist and creativity expert with a visionary outlook and a knack for metacognition, facilitation and listening. With a BA in Cognitive Science from the University of Virginia and an MSc in Creative Studies from the International Center for Studies in Creativity (ICSC) at SUNY Buffalo State, she incorporates budding areas of mind and creativity research into all of her work. As a leader and speaker she inspires wellness, fosters transformation and emboldens self-actualization.